You are to answer one(1) question from this section
Government as an art of governing is process of
running the activities of a state by ensuring
orderliness among the citizens.
(I) Law-making: This is one of the functions and it includes execution.
(ii) Defence of the country: The essence of the armed forces (army, navy, air force) is to defend the country against external aggression and sustaining the territorial integrity of the state.
(iii) Maintenance of law and order: This is basically the functions of the police and law courts.
(iv) Administration of Justice: The law courts interpret the law and administer justice. Cases are treated according to their merits. The law courts can also punish offenders.
(v) Provision of social services: Provision of social amenities are basic functions of the government. Such amenities like pipe borne water, hospitals, electricity, roads, are however provided from the taxes the people pay.
(vi) Protection of lives and property: It is the duty of the government to protect lives and property of the citizens living in the country.
(vii) Provision of Job opportunities: Government should provide employment opportunities for its citizens. Some countries like Britain pay the citizens unemployment allowance.
(viii)Economic Function: Government has the responsibility of promoting and regulating economic activities in order to enhance growth and the atmosphere for investment.
(ix) Political functions: Government is involved here through the setting up of an external body to conduct elections leading to a peaceful change of government.
(2a)Constitution can be define as a body of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is acknowledged to be governed.
(2bi)Written constitution: is a formal document defining the nature of the constitutional settlement, the rules that govern the political system and the rights of citizens and governments in a codified form.
(ii)Unwritten Constitution : a constitution not embodied in a single document but based chiefly on custom and precedent as expressed in statutes and judicial decisions.
(iii)Rigid Constitution : a constitution that is difficult or slow to change usually because of a prescribed process of amendment that is detailed and lengthy in execution.
(iv)Flexible Constitution : a constitution that may be amended by the ordinary process of legislation and is therefore relatively easy to amend.
You are to answer Two(2) questions from this aspect
(3a) Legitimacy is the acceptance and recognition by the people of the right of the ruler to govern.
(b)(i) Popular Support – A government is legitimate if it receives the popular support of the citizens.
(ii) Popular Participation – For a government to be accorded legitimacy, the citizens must be allowed to participate in political activities.
(iii) Good Governance – Any government that operates on the tenets of good governance will be accorded legitimacy.
(iv) Good Leadership – Legitimacy will be accorded to a leader with sterling qualities.
(v) Ideologies – The ability of the government to uphold the state ideology will help attain
(vi) Periodic free and fair elections
(vii) Respect for Fundamental Human Rights/Rule of law
(viii) Appreciable level of socio-economic development in the state by the Government
(ix) International recognition.
(x) Respect for the customs and traditions of the people.
(xi) Adherence to the provisions of the constitution of the state.
A citizen is defined as a legal member of a state with full constitutional or legal rights in the country in which he or she resides. While an alien or a non-citizen is any individual who is not a national of a State in which he or she is present.
(5b)Check the Diagram below
(6a) Indirect Rule is a British system of ruling her colonies with the use of local chiefs, or other appointed intermediaries, and traditional laws and customs with British officials merely supervising the administration
i). Cheap nature of indirect rule:
Apparently, the core reason for indirect rule in Nigeria was because of the cheap nature of the system. Since indirect rule used the local authorities, the colonial masters didn’t spend too much money on the administration. They were able to rule through the local authorities by giving gifts and little money to the illiterate leaders.
So, considering the fact that they didn’t have enough money to run the administration and the fact that direct rule will be more difficult and expensive, the colonial masters decide to use indirect rule because it was cheaper.
ii.) Language difficulties
Another reason for the introduction of indirect rule in Nigeria was language barrier. At the inception of colonialism, Britain found it extremely difficult to communicate with the people of Nigeria because only few were educated enough to understand. Consequently, indirect rule was thought to be the best system of administration because it helped to solve the problem of language barrier.
So, instead of communicating directly to the people, who were obviously not able to understand English, Britain used those who could understand and speak to control the system. By so doing, they didn’t went through the stress of speaking directly to the people to convince them of their intentions.
iii). Participation by local authorities
Knowing fully well that Nigerians would be more receptive to a system where their local leaders in authority are part of, indirect rule seemed to be the best option for colonial masters at that time.
Even though the local leaders were not really in control of the system, Nigerians (the north especially) didn’t want to go against their leaders. On the other hand, the colonial masters ruled the country in disguise of incorporating the local leaders into their system. This was undoubtedly one of the reasons why indirect rule largely succeeded in some parts of the country.
iv). Lack of British personnels
When the colonial masters entered Nigeria, many of them were killed by local diseases in Nigeria. They were unable to stay in Nigeria because our weather condition was not conducive for them. Thus, many of them had to leave. This largely reduced the number of British personnels that were supposed to administer the affairs of the local people.
The colonial masters considered that even if they were to use direct rule (that is, the opposite of indirect rule), they didn’t have enough personnels to control all the parts of Nigeria. Based on this, indirect rule was adopted in Nigeria so that the few British personnels around, would be able to control the local people via their local leaders.
v). Success of indirect rule in other countries
Following the success of indirect rule in places like Ghana and other African countries, the colonial master thought that it will be wise to use indirect rule in Nigeria too.
More so, it is that another reason why the colonial masters used indirect rule in Nigeria was because of the failure of direct rule in many countries. Thus, in other not to fail, indirect rule was the best option for the British.
vi) Reduction in the possibility of rebellion
Again, Britain adopted indirect rule in Nigeria because they were trying to avoid rebellion by Nigerians. I have stated earlier that Nigerians seemed to be more receptive to indirect rule because the system used the traditional leaders of the people to rule them. This made it impossible for the people to oppose the rule by the colonial masters, as that would be an opposition to their own leaders.
So you see, the colonial masters were very wise to have adopted indirect rule. That was the reason why they were not vehemently opposed by the local youths during the precolonial erra of Nigeria.
vii.) To preserve the custom and tradition of the people
Another important reason for the adoption of indirect rule in Nigeria was to preserve the native law and customs in Nigeria. Unlike the French policy of assimilation, the British didn’t want to introduce any system of government that is capable of causing crisis or rebellion by the people. So to resolve this, indirect rule seemed to be the perfect system.
So by ruling the people indirectly through their leaders, the colonial masters were able to achieve their aim of colonialism even without introducing a new tradition or taking away the people’s original customs and tradition.
viii). Britain’s unwillingness to be involved financially
Even when Britain was aware of all the benefits they will get from colonialism, they didn’t just want to be involved financially. They intended to get the biggest benefit with little capital and indirect rule was the best system to achieve this.
Basically, they didn’t contribute financially to the system. That was why tax system was introduced in every region of the country so that the people will be able to generate funds that will indirectly be used to administer the affCompletedhe people again.