(1ai) Subsistence farming is a form of production in which nearly all crops or livestock are raised to sustain the farm family, and rarely producing surpluses to sell for cash or store for later use. There are two major types of subsistence agriculture: primitive and intensive.

Commercial farming is a type of farming in which crops are grown for commercial use only, i.e. for selling pupose only. A large capital, land and large amount of labour is required. Machines are used at a large scale. The crops are processed for commercial use either in the farm itself or in nearby factories.

(i) Agriculture provides market for industrial products, e.g. farm machinery, chemicals, fertilizer, etc.

(ii) Provides food to industrial workers.

(iii) both agriculture and industry compete for labour.

(iv) agricultural development allows for a shift of factors of production to the industry.

(v) rise in agricultural income due to efficient and economic factor combination brings about development of the industrial sector of the economy.

(vi) industries provide a large range of d desirable things that farmers want to buy.

(i) Cuttings
(Ii) Layering
(III) Division
(iv) Budding
(v) Grafting
(i) gift
(ii) communal
(iii) purchase, freehold or individual ownership
(iv) inheritance
(v) leasing or leasehold
(vi) pledge
(vii) share cropping, rent or tenancy
(viii) Tenancy at the will of Government

(i) fertilization, manuring and liming
(ii) reclamation and drainage
(iii) fallowing
(iv) proper cultivation methods e.g. crop rotation
(v) control of erosion
(vi) irrigation
(vii) rotational grazing.

(I) parasites
ii) soil organisms
iii) diseases
iv) pests
v) weeds
vi) predators


(3a)Agricultural/farm mechanization is the process whereby equipments, machineries and implements are utilized to boost agricultural and food production.

1. Time lines of operation
2. It saves labour
3. It reduces health hazard
4. It reduces drigery
5. Increases in-Farm revenue
6. It encourages large scale Farming
7. Increase in output
8. Co-operation among farmer’s
9. It increases specialization of labour
10. It saves time
11. Reduction in cost of production


(i) small farm holding/land fragmentation /land tenure system

(ii) farming systems do not encourage mechanization

(iii) no access roads for machines

(iv) it is costly or expensive to hire machines and most farmers are poor

(v) high running costs for machinery

(vi) heavy tree stumps left after land clearing hinders use of machinery

(vii) machines/implements are expensive to purchase

(viii) inadequate capital/ credit facilities

(ix) spare parts are not easily available

(x) technical know-how may be a problem

(xi) inadequate extension service/education for farmers/illiteracy

(xii) unfavourable soil terrain/topography.

(xiii) availability of labourers/ farm hands

(xiv) non-availability of tropicalised machinery/inadequate machines
A Forest can be defined as an area of land set aside for the production of timber and other forest products. Forest can be defined as a large area of land covered with trees and brushes, either growing wild or planted for some purposes.

*Government Should encourage planting of trees because:*
i. Trees conserve energy in the summer and save you money.
ii.Trees conserve energy in the winter.
iii. Trees help clean the air.
iii. Trees bring songbirds close by.
iv. Trees shelter and nourish wildlife from bears to bald eagles and salmon to salamanders.
v. Trees reduce the cost of controlling stormwater.

i. Hay.
ii. Silage.

i. Temperature
ii. Atmospheric pressure.
iii. Wind
iv. Humidity
v. Precipitated and Cloudiness.

A weed is a wild plant that grows in gardens or fields of crops and prevents the plants that you want from growing properly.

-Choose any 4-
i.Preventative Weed Control.
ii. Cultural Weed Control.
iii. Mechanical Weed Control.
iv Biological Weed Control.
v. Chemical Weed Control.

Maintenance Ration: Maintenance ration is the daily feed allowance per animal in correct amount and proportion meant to maintain the animals life without increasing or decreasing in weight.

Production Ration: This is the extra amount of feed an animal needs above the maintenance ration so that the animal can do work or produce products such as milk, meat, eggs and offspring.

Malnutrition: Malnutrition refers to deficiencies, excesses or imbalances in a person’s intake of energy and/or nutrients. Malnutrition is a condition that results from nutrient deficiency or overconsumption in animal.


(6ai) Insecticides are chemicals used to control insects by killing them or preventing them from engaging in undesirable or destructive behaviors.


(i) for local herbs;
(ii) for interior decorations:
(iii) for landscaping of areas;
(iv) for decoration of resort centres.
(v) for provision of shade;
(vi) for scientific research;
(vii) for provision of income to horticulturist/florist
(viii) as source of perfume or preparation of perfumes;
(ix) as symbol of love/social value
(x) in noise absorption,
(xi) to reduce adverse effects of wind;
(xii) to purify atmospheric air;
(xiii) for making hedges;
(xiv) provision of employment (gardeners).
(xv) to provide foreign exchange to the government when exported.

I). Provides space for maximum exercise for animals
II). Source of cheap feed for farm animals
III) Source of salt lick for farm animals
IV) Provides the protein needs of ruminant animals if legumes are present in the rangeland
V) Rangeland makes it possible for unproductive and to be utilized for pasture growing


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