NECO GCE 2021 GOVERNMENT ESSAY AND OBJ ANSWERS -NOV/DEC EXPO

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Government -Essay

(6)
(i)Aid and assistance: This is one of the major advantages a country gets from being part of the United Nations organization. In the event that the country is plagued with a major disaster such as a major earthquake, tsunami or flood, the UN would not hesitate for a moment sending help to the country.

(ii)Economical development of the nation: A nation that is a member of the United Nations stands to benefit greatly through the United Nation’s special agencies, the World Bank Group and International Monetary Fund (IMF)

(iii)Strengthening of the health sector of a country: The United Nations helps member nations to strengthen their health sectors. The UN does this mainly through its very famous agency, the World Health Organization (WHO). Member countries especially the poor ones end up benefiting greatly from some of the objectives of the WHO such as the eradication of the child mortality, maternal health and the fight against HIV/AIDS and malaria

(iv)Strengthening of human rights within the country: Any country that joins the United Nations is bound by the rules and principles of the UN. One of the basic rules and principles of the UN is that all member countries must respect the fundamental human rights of all.

(v)Settlement of disputes; dispute must be settled among members states by peaceful means. and democracy, seeking sustainable solutions to protect the environment, strengthening international law, humanitarian interventions in crisis situations for peace.

(vi)To develop friendly relations among nations; nations work together to improve the lives of poor people, to conquer hunger, disease and illiteracy, and to encourage respect for each other’s rights and freedoms and to be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations to achieve these goals.
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(8)
(i) A democratic government is ruled by civilians, usually elected by the people. On the other hand, military government is ruled by the armed forces, who do not come to power through election, but by force of arms.

(ii) A democratic government is usually transparent, responsible and accountable to the people, who may renew its mandate to rule at election While Military rule is largely not responsible or accountable to the people. The people may however, check it through popular civil action and so forth.

(iii) Democracy allows for imputs, criticism and the functioning of a free press and free debate among subordinates and the people. A civil administration elicits people and co-operation and it is also adaptable to easy change and modification. Civil administration operates on a voluntary basis and thereby elicits loyalty and devotion, which no military force can instill While Military government operates a chain of command and there is little individual initiative at the bottom. The military operates by order that allows little or no deviation.

(iv) Democracy is ruled by the constitution and reign of civil laws which are reasonably justifiable in a democratic society with civilian exercising all legislative, executive and judicial powers While Military rule means suspension and modification of the constitution. Imposition of martial law wholesale, partially, or modified, with the military exercising all legislative, executive and sometimes judicial powers as the case may be.

(v) The mandate of a constitutional and democratic government to rule and its tenure of office is usually stipulated in the constitution or in a law and its assumption of office or continuation in power is determined by the Electorate through vote during elections While A military regime does not have a constitutional or legal mandate to rule and its tenure of office is not owed to the people. It either voluntarily determines its own tenure or such tenure is determined by another military take over or, popular civil action by the people.

(vi) Democracy is rule by civil made by the elected representatives of the people in parliamentary While Military rule is rule by decrees, edits, Martial law and emergency laws.
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(4a)
A political party is defined as an organised group of people with at least roughly similar political aims and opinions, that seeks to influence public policy by getting its candidates elected to public office.

(4b)
(i) To attain power: It is the main objective of all political parties.Tgey compete with each other for the same , there is nothing wrong with the objective of gaining power as long as the competition is fair.

(ii) To pursue an ideology: A party’s stand on certain social issues defines it’s ideology. In modern times, mist political parties have similar ideologies which make it difficult for the common voter to decide whom to support.

(III) To have common agenda: On the basis of their ideologies, parties prepare their agendas. They aim to gather public support for their agenda in order to win elections and implement them.

(iv) To establish a government: The political party which gets the majority of votes in the elections forms the government, the parties with lesser votes from the opposition.

(v) To act as a link between people and the government: Political parties are the connecting link between people and the government. They communicate the demands and the complaints of the people to the elected leaders and on the other hand, the government tries to get the support of the people for it’s policies and programs through the channel of political parties.
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(9a)
Civil service, the body of government officials who are employed in civil occupations that are neither political nor judicial. OR The civil service is typically described as the core, permanent administrative arm of government, including permanent and pensionable officials working in government ministries, departments and agencies.

(9b)
( i) Legislative Control: The legislature controls the civil service in several ways. It lays down the objectives of government, decides the institution that will implement them and stipulates the method and policy to be followed.

(ii) Executive Control: The executive exercises direct political and administrative control over the civil service. It coordinates the activities of government ministries and administrative agencies and appoints ministers, permanent secretaries and other top civil servants.

(iii) Judicial Control: The judiciary enforces the principle that the government and its employees are accountable to the law. In other words, it ensures that administrative acts are consistent with the law.

(iv) Public Control: Public criticism of civil servants and their performance, though an indirect control of the civil service, may lead to increased efficiency and instigate reforms of the service, because an indictment of the civil service is an indictment of the government.

(v) Control by the press: The press is the instrument through which people are informed of the happenings in the civil service and through which the people can criticize the operations of the civil service. As a result of the above, civil servants are always conscious of what they do in order to avoid the criticism of the general public and that of the press.The press therefore acts as control over the activities of the civil service.
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(1i)
Cross carpeting; has become the defining expression in our kind of political pragmatism. When people see the light, for which, read opportunity, in another political party, they flock to it. You should recognise this as chop-chop politics. It is the only kind of politics we know; it is the only kind of politics we practice.

(1ii)
Voting By Proxy; form of voting whereby a member of a decision-making body may delegate his or her voting power to a representative, to enable a vote in absence. The representative may be another member of the same body, or external. A person so designated is called a “proxy” and the person designating him or her is called a “principal”

(1iii)
Disfranchisement; restriction of suffrage (the right to vote) of a person or group of people, or a practice that has the effect of preventing a person exercising the right to vote. Disfranchisement can also refer to the revocation of power or control of a particular individual, community or being to the natural amenity they have

(1iv)
Electoral Constituency; subdivision of a larger state (a country, administrative region, or other polity) created to provide its population with representation in the larger state’s legislative body. That body, or the state’s constitution or a body established for that purpose, determines each district’s boundaries and whether each will be represented by a single member or multiple members.

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