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Power refers to the ability or capacity to achieve a desired outcome, exert influence, or control over others, events, or resources. In the context of politics, power is often associated with authority, leadership, and decision-making.

(i) Elections and Democratic Processes:
In democratic societies, political power is often acquired through elections. Candidates campaign to gain the support of the electorate, and those who receive the most votes win political office. This process is rooted in the principles of representative democracy, where citizens have the right to choose their leaders and hold them accountable through periodic elections.

(ii) Inheritance and Monarchy:
In some political systems, power is inherited through familial lines. Monarchies are a prime example where kings, queens, and other nobility acquire political power through birthright. This form of political power is often sustained by traditions, cultural norms, and sometimes, divine right theories that legitimize the rule of the monarch and their descendants.

(iii) Revolutions and Coups:
Political power can be acquired through revolutions or coups, which involve the overthrow of existing governments or regimes. Revolutions are typically mass movements driven by widespread discontent with the current system, often leading to radical changes in political structure. Coups, on the other hand, are usually sudden, violent, and executed by a small group, often within the military or elite factions.

(iv) Appointments and Nominations:
In many political systems, individuals can acquire power through appointments and nominations. This occurs in various forms, such as cabinet positions, judiciary appointments, and other significant roles within the government. These appointments are usually made by existing political leaders or bodies and often reflect the appointee’s loyalty, expertise, or political alliances.

(v) Charismatic Leadership and Popular Movements:
Charismatic leaders often gain political power through their ability to inspire and mobilize people. Their personal qualities, vision, and communication skills can attract a significant following, leading to the formation of popular movements. These leaders leverage their charisma to build political parties, gain public support, and ultimately acquire positions of power through various means, including elections and social movements.

A franchise is the right or privilege granted to a citizen to vote in an election, choose a representative, or participate in the decision-making process of a government or organization. It is also referred to as suffrage.

(i) Age: The candidate must have attained the minimum age required by law to vote in the election. This age varies by country or state, but is typically 18 years old. This condition ensures that voters have reached a level of maturity and understanding to make informed decisions.

(ii) Citizenship: The candidate must be a citizen of the country or state holding the election. This condition ensures that only those with a vested interest in the country’s governance can participate in the democratic process.

(iii) Residence: The candidate must have been a resident of the electoral district or constituency for a specified period before the election. This condition ensures that voters have a connection to the community and are invested in its well-being.

(iv) Registration: The candidate must be registered to vote in the election. This typically involves filling out a voter registration form and providing proof of identity and residency. This condition ensures that voters are officially recorded and eligible to cast a ballot.

(v) Not disqualified: The candidate must not have been disqualified from voting due to a criminal conviction, mental incapacity, or other legal reasons specified by electoral laws. This condition ensures that those who have been deemed unfit to vote by the legal system are not able to participate in the election.

Public opinion refers to the collective views, attitudes, and beliefs of a population or segment of society on a particular issue, topic, or political leader. It is a measure of what the public thinks, feels, and believes about a particular matter.

(i) Lack of information: When the public is not adequately informed about an issue, they may form opinions based on incomplete or inaccurate information, leading to unreliable public opinion.

(ii) Emotional appeals: Public opinion can be swayed by emotional appeals, rather than fact-based reasoning, leading to impulsive and unreliable decisions.

(iii) Media bias: Biased media coverage can shape public opinion by selectively presenting information, leading to a distorted view of reality.

(iv) Peer pressure and conformity: Individuals may conform to the views of those around them, rather than forming their own opinions, leading to a false consensus effect.

(v) Manipulation by special interests: Special interest groups may use propaganda, lobbying, or other tactics to influence public opinion for their own gain, rather than the greater good.

(4a) Electoral constituency;
An electoral constituency is a defined area or district that elects a representative to a legislative body, such as a parliament or congress. The boundaries of an electoral constituency are typically defined by population, geography, or political considerations, and the constituents within it vote for their preferred candidate or party.

(4b) Plurality system;
A plurality system is a voting system in which the candidate with the most votes wins the election, without necessarily requiring a majority (50% + 1) of votes. This system is often used in single-member district elections.

(4c) Electoral malpractice;
Electoral malpractice refers to illegal or unethical activities that compromise the integrity of an election, such as voter fraud, vote-buying, intimidation, and tampering with ballots or voting systems. These activities can lead to disputed election results, loss of public trust, and the undermining of democracy.

(4d) Impeachment;
Impeachment is a constitutional process to remove a public official, such as a president or judge, from office for serious offenses like treason, bribery, or abuse of power. The process involves charges (impeachment) and a trial (removal from office) in a legislative body.


(i) Cultural Exchange;
International interaction allows for the exchange of cultural practices, values, and beliefs, promoting cross-cultural understanding and appreciation. This enriches the cultural landscape of a country through the exchange of art, music, literature, and ideas. People-to-people diplomacy is encouraged, fostering global citizenship and understanding.

(ii) Economic Growth;
Interacting with other nations creates new markets and trade opportunities, boosting economic development and job creation. It attracts foreign investment, enhancing economic competitiveness and growth. Innovation and entrepreneurship are encouraged, driving economic progress.

(iii) Diplomacy and Conflict Resolution;
International interaction facilitates peaceful resolution of conflicts through diplomatic channels. Countries can negotiate treaties, agreements, and international laws, promoting global peace and stability through international cooperation and dialogue.

(iv) Technological Advancements;
Collaboration with other nations facilitates the sharing of knowledge, expertise, and resources, driving technological innovation and progress. Global problem-solving capabilities are enhanced through collective expertise.

(v) Education and Research;
International collaboration in education and research encourages the exchange of ideas, expertise, and best practices. It fosters international collaboration in scientific research and discovery, developing global talent and expertise, driving innovation and progress.

(vi) Global Citizenship;
International interaction encourages individuals to embrace their role in the global community, fostering appreciation for diversity, cultural understanding, and global responsibility. It promotes a sense of shared humanity and global solidarity.

(i) Political Instability: The crisis led to a period of political turmoil in the Western region, characterized by protests, demonstrations, and violence. This instability weakened the region’s political structures and created an atmosphere of uncertainty.

(ii) Fragmentation of the Party: The Action Group’s internal conflicts and ideological differences ultimately led to its breakup, with various factions splintering off to form new parties. This fragmentation weakened the party’s grip on power and paved the way for other political forces to emerge.

(iii) Arrest and Trial of Leaders: The treasonable felony charges against Chief Awolowo and other Action Group leaders led to a highly publicized and controversial trial. The trial’s outcome, which saw Awolowo sentenced to prison, further divided the country and fueled political tensions.

(iv) Imposition of a State of Emergency: The federal government’s declaration of a state of emergency in the Western region granted the military sweeping powers to arrest, detain, and try civilians. This move effectively suspended democratic governance in the region and concentrated power in the hands of the federal authorities.

(v) Shift in Political Power Dynamics: The crisis marked a significant turning point in Nigeria’s political history, as the federal government asserted its dominance over the regions. This shift concentrated power in the center, undermining the country’s federal structure and regional autonomy.

(vi) Precursor to Military Intervention: The Action Group crisis contributed to the political tensions and instability that eventually led to the military coup of January 1966. This coup marked the beginning of a long period of military rule in Nigeria, which had far-reaching consequences for the country’s political, economic, and social development.

(i) Village Assembly (Ogba): The village assembly was the basic political unit of Igbo society. It was a democratic institution where all adult males in the village gathered to discuss and decide on matters affecting the community, such as conflict resolution, economic projects, and social events. The assembly was usually chaired by a respected elder or a designated leader.

(ii) Kindred (Umunna): The kindred was a group of related villages tracing their descent from a common ancestor. It played a significant role in maintaining social order and resolving disputes. The kindred was responsible for organizing communal activities, such as farming, hunting, and festivals. It also provided support and protection to its members.

(iii) Clan (Ugwu): The clan was a larger unit comprising several kindreds. It was responsible for maintaining law and order, resolving conflicts, and organizing communal activities. The clan was also responsible for defending its members against external threats and maintaining the clan’s honor and prestige.

(iv) Chiefly Council (Ndi Nze): The chiefly council was composed of respected elders and chiefs who advised the village or kindred on important matters. They played a key role in maintaining social harmony and resolving disputes. The council was responsible for interpreting customary laws and traditions, and its members were chosen for their wisdom, integrity, and leadership abilities.

(v) Age Grade (Otu): The age grade was a social organization based on age groups. Members of the same age grade performed specific roles and responsibilities, such as maintaining law and order, organizing festivals, and providing social support. The age grade system helped to maintain social cohesion and provided a sense of belonging and identity.

(vi) Priestly Class (Ndi Nze na Ozu): The priestly class was responsible for spiritual matters, including divination, sacrifice, and rituals. They played a significant role in maintaining the spiritual and moral well-being of the community. The priestly class was composed of trained priests and priestesses who were knowledgeable in Igbo spirituality and traditions.

(i) Cultural Preservation: Traditional rulers serve as custodians of Nigeria’s rich cultural heritage, promoting and preserving the country’s history, customs, and traditions. They organize cultural festivals, support traditional arts and crafts, and maintain historical sites, keeping Nigeria’s cultural identity alive.

(ii) Conflict Resolution: Traditional rulers play a significant role in resolving conflicts and disputes in their communities, often serving as mediators and arbitrators. Their wisdom, impartiality, and knowledge of local customs help to resolve disputes peacefully, maintaining social harmony.

(iii) Community Development: Traditional rulers contribute to the development of their communities, supporting initiatives in education, healthcare, and infrastructure. They partner with government agencies, NGOs, and private organizations to attract development projects, create jobs, and improve living standards.

(iv) Symbolic Leadership: Traditional rulers serve as symbols of unity and stability, embodying the history and traditions of their communities. They embody the values of their ancestors, providing a sense of continuity and connection to the past, and serving as role models for younger generations.

(v) Advisorial Roles: Traditional rulers offer guidance and advice to government officials and politicians, drawing on their wealth of experience and knowledge. They provide insight into local customs, traditions, and concerns, helping policymakers make informed decisions that benefit their communities.

(vi) Representation: Traditional rulers represent their communities at national and international events, showcasing Nigeria’s diverse cultural heritage and promoting national unity. They participate in diplomatic missions, cultural exchanges, and international forums, fostering global understanding and cooperation.

(i) Deliberation and Policymaking: The General Assembly provides a platform for member states to debate and discuss global issues, setting global standards and norms through resolutions and decisions. This activity enables the UN to address pressing global challenges, promote international cooperation, and shape international relations.

(ii) Supervision: The General Assembly reviews reports from UN organs and specialized agencies, ensuring accountability and transparency in their functioning. This activity promotes efficient use of resources, prevents fraud and abuse, and ensures that UN bodies are working effectively towards their mandates.

(iii) Elective Functions: The General Assembly elects nonpermanent members of the Security Council, members of the Economic and Social Council, members of the Human Rights Council, and judges of the International Court of Justice. This activity ensures that competent and qualified individuals are elected to these bodies, maintaining the credibility and effectiveness of the UN.

(iv) Budgeting: The General Assembly approves the UN’s biennial budget, determines member states’ contributions, and reviews budgets of specialized agencies. This activity enables the UN to manage its finances efficiently, allocate resources effectively, and achieve its goals.

(v) Admission of New Members: The General Assembly considers applications for membership from non-member states, admits new members subject to Security Council approval, and welcomes them into the UN community. This activity expands UN membership, promotes universal participation, and diversifies perspectives.

(vi) Resolutions: The General Assembly passes resolutions on various international issues, providing a framework for international cooperation and action. Resolutions address global challenges, promote peace, security, development, human rights, and international law.

(i) Provision of Basic Services: Local government councils are responsible for providing basic services such as water, sanitation, electricity, and waste management to their communities.

(ii) Infrastructure Development: Local government councils are responsible for developing and maintaining infrastructure such as roads, bridges, and public buildings.

(iii) Healthcare and Social Services: Local government councils provide healthcare services, social services, and welfare programs to vulnerable members of their communities.

(iv) Education and Community Development: Local government councils are involved in the provision of education, community development programs, and cultural activities.

(v) Revenue Collection and Management: Local government councils are responsible for collecting revenue from taxes, rates, and other sources, and managing these funds to deliver services and infrastructure.

(vi) Regulation and Enforcement: Local government councils are responsible for regulating and enforcing laws and regulations related to building, planning, public health, and environmental protection.
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