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-Choose any 5-

i) Movement.

ii) Breathing or Respiration.

iii) Excretion.

iv) Growth.

v) Sensitivity.

vi) Reproduction.



-Choose any 5-


i. Animal Move from place to place/locomotion,move with the whole body *While*;

Plant Are fixed/do not move from place to place; and move only parts of the body, root/stem/leaves.


ii. Animal has Heterotrophic mode of nutrition that depend on already-made food. *While*; Plant has Autotrophic mode of nutrition/manufacture their own food using the energy from the sun.


iii.Animal= No chlorophyll/chloroplast *While;*

Plant=Chlorophyll/chloroplast present.

iv. Animal Sense organs present. *While*; Plant Sense organs absent.


iv. Animal has No cell wall. *While*; Plant Has a cell wall made of cellulose.


v. Growth is limited in Animal /definite in growth in all parts of the body. *While*;

Growth is unlimited in Plant /indefinite; growth is apical or terminal.


vi. Anilmal Store carbohydrate as glycogen. *While*; Plant Store carbohydrate as starch.



Check Diagram.



i. Euglena cells have flagellum.

ii. Has tails on cells which allow the cells to move and are characteristics of animal cells.

iii. They also move around and eat,as do animals.





*An Ecosystem:* is a natural unit in which there is an interaction between all living organisms (biotic factors) and non-living organisms (abiotic factors) within an environment or habitat.



-Choose any 4- 

i. Inorganic compounds or elements, e.g. O2, N2, salts, CO2 , H2O etc.

ii. Water/rainfall.

iii. Temperature light/ sunlight.

iv. Wind.

v. Altitude.

vi. Pressure.



Parasitism is generally defined as a relationship between the two living species in which one organism is benefitted at the expense of the other. The organism that is benefitted is called the parasite, while the one that is harmed is called the host.A few examples of parasites are tapeworms, fleas, and barnacles.



Commensalism is a long-term biological interaction (symbiosis) in which members of one species gain benefits while those of the other species neither benefit nor are harmed.



i. Lung.

ii. Kidney.

iii. Skin.

iv. Liver.

v. Nephridia





A Microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or a colony of cells.An organism that can be seen only through a microscope.Microorganisms include bacteria, protozoa, algae, and fungi.



-Choose any 5-

i. Viruses.

ii. Bacteria.

iii. Archaea.

iv. Fungi.

v. Protists.

vi. Algae.



i. They cause diseases.

ii. They can cause undesirable qualities in plants/plant product.

iii. They cause spoilage.

iv. Reduction in yield.



-Choose any 5-

i. Bacteria/decomposers help to decay/decompose dead organisms to release nutrients.

ii. Bacteria is used in cleaning/mopping up oil spillage.

iii. Used in the fermentation of foods/cocoa beans/garri/locust beans/kenkey production.

iv. Used to make vinegar.

v. Used in making alcoholic beverages/wine/beer/spirit.

vi. Used in making some antibiotics/penicillin.

vii. Used in the manufacture of insulin.

viii. Used in making cheese/yoghurt/bread/Single Cell Proteins.

ix. Used in making flax/tanning of leather.



-Choose any 4-

i. Provides grants for medical research.

ii. Improves public health/promotes environmental health.

iii. Prevents the spread of diseases vaccination.

iv. Provides vaccines/drugs in cases of emergencies.

v. Informs/creates awareness/educates the public of any research findings/outbreak of diseases.

vi. Assists by sending medical personnel/logistical sup-port to countries upon request.

vii. Helps in the training of medical personnel.

viii. Keeps health statistics.

ix. Promotes nutritional/sanitary products.





*Food chain:* This is a linear feeding relationship; in which energy is transferred from producer/plants; through a series of organisms/trophic levels; in which each organism feeds on the preceding one; and provides food for the succeeding one in the habitat.



Check Diagram



-Choose any 4-

(i) Blood serves as a transport medium of soluble organic compounds/digested food from the small intestines to various parts of the body where they are stored/assimilated or used; and transported from storage areas where they are used.


(ii) It transports soluble excretory waste materials such as Urea/CO2/to organs of excretion such as kidney/lungs.


(iii) Transport of hormones / from the glands/corresponding gland/where they are produced to target organs is also facilitated.


(iv) Distribution of excess heat from deeply seated organs to maintain a constant body temperature is equally a function of the blood.


(v) Transport of oxygen from the lungs to all parts of the body/transport of carbon dioxide produced by the tissues to the lungs.


(vi) Defence against disease/foreign bodies through photocytosis.


(vii) When an injury occurs, clotting of blood (by platelets/thrombocytes and fibrinogen) prevents excess loss of blood, and also prevents entry of pathogens/germs.


(viii) Immunity is achieved by antibodies and lymphocytes carried by blood.


(ix) Transports water


(x) Transports mineral salts.



-Choose any 3-

(I) Supports it posture and provides to the body e.g. backbones/ vertebrae/pelvic girdle


(ii) It gives protection — e.g. ribcage protects heart/lungs/cranium(skull) protects brain/vertebrae protects spinal cord/pelvic girdle protects female reproductive organs.


(iii) The skeleton helps in the production of blood cells — in the bone/marrow of the long bones


(iv) Storage of calcium is also encourage, e.g., in the bone matrix


(v) Movement/locomotion is enhanced. — any of the limb bones


(vi) Breathing movements — Riles


(vii) Attachment of muscles is facilitated — any bone


(viii) Provision of shape-axial skeleton/grindles etc.



Definition of enzymes: Enzymes are organic catalyst substance that speed up/slow down the rate of biochemical reactions, they are made of proteins, and produced by living cells.



-Choose any 4-

(i) Remain chemically unchanged at the end of a reaction


(ii) Are specific in action/one or a group of enzymes will act on specific substrates


(iii) Required in small quantities


(iv) Act best over a specific range of temperature/between 35o — 40°C


(v) They are denature/destroyed at high temperature/inactivated at very low temperature


(vi) Act best at specific Ph (either acidic or alkaline)


(vii) Their action is reversible


(viii) Enzyme action is retarded by poison or inhibitors


(ix) Some are inactive and require a co-enzyme/agent to activate them


(x) They can function outside the body of the organism that produces them


(xi) Enzymes are protein in nature.




Aerobic respiration= C6H12O6 + 6O6→ 6CO2 + 6H20 + 38ATP Energy/690k cal.



Anaerobic respiration= in plants C6H12O6 –> 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 + 2ATP/Energy/50 k cal.



Anaerobic respiration in animals= C6H12O6_)→2CH\(3CH(OH)COOH + 2ATP/Energy/150 k cal. C6H12O6 → 2C3H6O3 + 2ATP/Energy/150 k cal.



-Choose any 2-

i. They have no attachment to the ground so they are called air plants and they get nutrients from leaves and other debris material. 

ii. They are mostly in dense shaded forests where there is less sunlight source.

iii. They are mainly found in tropical as well as temperate regions.

iv. They provide a rich and diverse habitat for other organisms including animals, fungi, bacteria, etc.

v. It does not take manufactured food from the support plant.

vi. It is capable of photosynthesis



-Choose any 2-

i. An organism that lives on or in another organism is called a host.

ii.It obtains shelter/protection/food from the host At the expense of the host/leading to harm/death of the host.

iii. They are usually much smaller than their host and they reproduce at a faster rate.



Check Diagram



-Pick 1-

i. Auxin Hormone.

ii. Ethane Hormone.

iii. Ethylene Hormone.



-Pick any 1-

i. Auxin Hormone.

ii. Gibberellins Hormone.

iii. Cytokinins Hormone.



Abscisic acid.




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