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==> Tuesday 16th
February, 2021
*Tuesday 16th February*
Government Paper III & II (Objective & Essay)
2.00pm – 4.40pm




Citizenship is the relationship between an individual and a state to which the individual owes allegiance and in turn is entitled to its protection.

(i) A citizen has no right to slander another citizens
(ii) A citizen who is convicted and imprisoned may loose his voting rights and movement while in prison
(iii) A citizen has no right to trespass into another persons property
(iv) Government may restrict citizens movement during emergency period
(v) Citizens may be denied to own some property e.g. weapons of some category
(i) A transparent electoral process: Transparency is important in an election. The electoral system must be so transparent as to promote fairness. This can prevent an incumbent from manipulating the electoral process to win an election when in fact that is not the will of the people.

(ii)An effective research outfit: The political party must put in place an effective research outfit that can counter any negative propaganda from their opponents. Also, the party itself must have effective propaganda machinery to be able to push its message into the body politic, not only to inform but sometimes to misinform in a way that would inure to the benefits of the party.

(iii)Attractive manifesto: One of the factors that can enhance the chances of a political party winning an election is a good manifesto. The manifesto outlines the plans and programs of the party. The programs that it intends to implement when it is voted into power. If the electorates think this manifesto is better than other manifestoes that are being paraded, it can influence the direction of their vote.

(iv) Membership of the party: The factor that can promote the chances of a political party winning an election is the membership base of the party. Politics is a game of numbers. The more members a party has the better its chances in an election. Where the membership of the party is broad-based, it can boost the chances of the party winning an election.

(v) loading…

Indirect election This is a system whereby the electorate will first vote for their representatives who in turn will vote for the final political office holders.

(i)undemocratic the electorate are not directly involved in the final choice of their representatives
(ii)the system does not offer wider political participation in the state; they promotes bribery and corruption and manipulation of delegates
(iii)cumbersome procedures are usually followed due to involvement in several stages and final result may not reflect the will of the people
(iv)it denies the people of the popular sovereignty and it violates the democratic principle of one man one vote
(v)it may breed discontent and political instability and It may lead to political apathy.
(i)Culture and customs protection; Often local traditional rulers are considered a spiritual leaders. They are the keepers of traditional religions and customs. This is a very important role in the time of globalization and losing the traditions.

(ii)Social authorities; The authority of traditional rulers often influence many essential social questions, for example, the rulers can influence government election process. Their influence is significant almost in any social issue.

(iii)Chair meetings of elders; Such chair meetings of elders play a significant role for the well being of a domain. This is the main method of regulation of the issues in the community.

(iv)Taxes and civil duties; Traditional rulers mobilize local citizens to pay taxes and not forget about their civil duties. This is a common responsibility of local government and traditional rulers. They educate people about civil duties. It is especially important function of rulers in rural areas.

(v)Outstanding members of society; As it turned out this role is very important for the development of democracy in the country. Outstanding members of society helps to support moral directions in the society, often traditional leaders are considered role models for the community. It plays an essential role in the formation of communities of good citizens.

(vi)Religious sanctions; Traditional leaders still have the power to use religious sanctions in the cases of stealing, quarrels of married couples or neighbors, and land disputes. Only traditional leaders have the power to use local religion as an instrument to keep order and exclude the cases of misbehavior in local areas and communities
(i)One of the problem facing OPEC is the declining loyalty of its member state which has made it difficult for the decisions of the organization to be obeyed
(ii)The present challenge and competition posed by non OPEC oil producing nations like Britain, Mexico, Norway etc give OPEC a serious food for thought
(iii)OPEC Is also faced with the problem of its member nation sidetracking their agreed and foxed production quota
(iv)The activities of the advanced nation in stockpiling oil which contributed to the fail of oil price is causing concern to OPEC
(v)OPEC is also faced with the problem of increasing research by western advanced nation to find substitute for oil
(vi)Political disagreement which sometimes lead to war between member nations like Iran and Iraq war, Iraq’s annexation of Kuwait etc cause serious problem to OPEC
(8i)Developing proposals that are clearly in the community’s best interests

(ii)Planning and providing services and facilities for local citizens’ use

(iii) Building and strengthening the community’s infrastructure

(iv) Making strategic plans for land use

(v) Raising revenue to enable the council members to perform their duties

(vi) Creating, passing and enforcing local laws

(vii) Fulfilling their duties and functions to the best of their ability

(viii) Performing other functions related to peace, order and good governance


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