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Shading in art refers to the technique of adding value to a two-dimensional drawing or painting to create the impression of three-dimensional form. In other words, shading allows an artist to create the illusion of depth and volume by using light and dark variations in the color of the medium they are using. The process involves adding shadows and highlights to an image to create the appearance of depth, texture, and contrast. Shading is a critical element in creating realistic and compelling artwork and is commonly used in drawing, painting, and other forms of visual art. It can be achieved using various techniques such as cross-hatching, stippling, or blending, and is essential to creating lifelike depictions of objects, people, and scenes.





(i)Conveys Depth: One of the primary functions of perspective in art is to convey a sense of depth on two-dimensional surface. Perspective allows artists to create the illusion of three-dimensional, which can make a painting or drawing appear more realistic and lifelike.

(ii)Creates Realism: Perspective is essential for creating realistic depictions of people, objects, and scenes. It allows artists to accurately portray the way things look and the way they relate to one another in space.

(iii)Guides the Viewer’s Eye: Perspective can be used to guide the viewer’s eye through a painting and draw attention to specific elements. By using techniques such as foreshortening, artists can create a sense of movement and draw the viewer’s eye to the focal point of the artwork.

(iv)Enhances Composition: Perspective can also enhance the composition of an artwork by creating a sense of balance and harmony. By using techniques such as one-point, two-point, or three-point perspective, artists can create a sense of symmetry and structure in their work.

(v)Expresses Emotion: Perspective can also be used to express emotion in art. For example, distorted or exaggerated perspectives can be used to convey a sense of unease or disorientation, while naturalistic perspectives can create a sense of calm and tranquility.





(i) Tiles

(ii) Adhesive 

(iii) Grout 

(iv) Mosaic mesh 

(v) Glass beads

(vi) Smalti

(vii) Tile cutter or nippers

(viii) ceramic or porcelain tile 


(i) Step 1 -Design and Planning

(ii) Step 2- Cutting the Tiles

(iii) Step 3 – Preparing the Surface

(iv) Step 4 – Applying the Tiles

(v) Step 5 – Grouting and Finishing




Kolade Osinowo was a Nigerian artist, born and raised in Lagos, Nigeria. Throughout his career, he remained highly engaged with the cultural and artistic traditions of Nigeria and Africa as a whole.



Kolade Osinowo received his training in fine arts from several institutions, including the Yaba College of Technology in Lagos, the Central School of Art and Design in London, and the School of Visual Arts at the University of Lagos. Through his training, he developed a remarkable depth of knowledge and skill in a range of artistic mediums.


Kolade Osinowo was known for his mastery of a wide range of artistic mediums, including painting, drawing, print-making, sculpture, and mixed media. He was particularly interested in exploring themes of social justice, economic disparity, and the complexities of Nigerian identity in his artwork.


(i)”Faces of Poverty”: This painting depicts a group of people, including a young child, huddled together in poverty and despair. The painting is a powerful commentary on the stark economic disparities that exist in Nigerian society, and it challenges viewers to confront the systemic forces that perpetuate poverty and inequality.

(ii)”African Mask”: This sculpture is a striking interpretation of the traditional African mask, which Osinowo transformed into a modern work of art. The sculpture is marked by an incredible attention to detail, and it serves as a testament to Osinowo’s mastery of sculptural techniques.


(i) He helped to found the Art Renaissance Foundation, an organization that works to promote innovative and socially conscious forms of art throughout Africa.

(ii)He served as a mentor and inspiration to many young artists, and he played a critical role in shaping the direction of contemporary art in Nigeria.

(iii)He regularly exhibited his work in Nigeria and internationally, thereby raising the profile of African art on the global stage.

(iv) He was a vocal advocate for free expression and artistic emancipation in Nigeria, and he played an important role in the struggle for artistic freedom during a time when censorship and repression were common.




Odumasi-Krobo, Ghana


Training at Achimota College, He taught at the Winneba Teacher Training College (1961–1969) and was Head of Fine Art, College of Art (KNUST), Kumasi (1969–1974).


Drawings and teaching aids for Nature Study classes.


Awakening Africa (1959–1960)


(i)He contributed through the drew inspiration from his days at Achimota College (c. 1945–1951),

(ii)He also contributed in the script  Blackman’s Stoicism (1964). 

(iii)He also highlighted Pan-Africanism

(iv)He decolonization process that was spreading across Africa.

(v)He also contributed to produced a film on bronze casting to the artwork.



Byzantine art refers to the art produced in the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire, which lasted for more than a thousand years from the 4th century to the fall of Constantinople in 1453. It is characterized by its complexity, abstract forms, and use of gold and vibrant. Byzantine art covers a wide range of media, including mosaics, icons, frescoes, and metalwork, and it was heavily influenced by early Christian art, Roman art, and Greek art. Its religious and political nature is reflected in the depiction of religious figures, emperors, and imperial ceremonies. Byzantine art is notable for its religious and cultural significance, as it was a powerful means of conveying Christian ideology and Byzantine identity.


(i)Mosaic Decoration of the Bahia Sophia in Istanbul,Turkey.


(i)Use of light and color: Impressionist artists used bright, vivid colors and explored the effects of light on different surfaces. They often painted en plein air, or outdoors, to capture the changes in light and atmosphere throughout the day.

(ii)Loose brushwork and visible texture: Impressionist paintings are often characterized by quick, loose brushstrokes that create a sense of movement and spontaneity. The texture of the paint is often left visible, giving the painting a tactile quality.

(iii)Subject matter: Impressionist artists tended to focus on everyday scenes and activities, such as landscapes, portraits, and leisure activities. They sought to capture the fleeting moments and sensations of modern life, rather than idealized or historical scenes.

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