Waec GCE 2023 Civic Education (ESSAY & OBJ) Questions And Answers-Nov/Dec Expo

 

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CIVIC EDUCATION -OBJ
01-10: ABDBDACDCB
11-20: CBAAADDAAD
21-30: DCDACCDAAA
31-40: ADBDBCCDBC
41-50: BCCBBBBCAA
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CIVIC EDUCATION -ANSWERS

INSTRUCTIONS; Answer One Question From Each Sections.
(1)
(i) Enforcing Laws: Government agencies enforce traffic laws by monitoring roadways and issuing citations to violators.
(ii) Setting Regulations: These agencies establish and update traffic regulations to promote safety and efficiency on the roads.
(iii) Conducting Inspections: Government agencies inspect vehicles to ensure they meet safety standards and are roadworthy.
(iv) Educating the Public: They provide educational programs and campaigns to raise awareness about traffic rules and safe driving practices.
(v) Maintaining Infrastructure: Government agencies are responsible for maintaining road infrastructure, such as signs, signals, and road markings, to ensure their effectiveness in promoting traffic safety.
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(2)
(i) Discrimination and Prejudice:
Discrimination based on factors such as race, ethnicity, gender, religion, or social class can hinder individuals and groups from fully exercising their rights. Prejudice and bias may lead to unequal treatment, exclusion, and denial of opportunities, limiting access to education, employment, and other essential services.

(ii) Political Repression:
Governments or political entities may engage in repressive measures that curtail individual and group rights. This can include restrictions on freedom of speech, assembly, and association. Political repression may lead to the suppression of dissenting voices and limit the ability of individuals and groups to express their opinions or advocate for their rights.

(iii) Economic Inequality:
Economic disparities and unequal distribution of resources can hinder individuals and marginalized groups from enjoying their rights. Limited access to education, healthcare, and economic opportunities often perpetuates a cycle of poverty, preventing individuals from fully participating in societal activities and exercising their rights.

(iv) Lack of Access to Education:
Denial of education or limited access to quality education can be a significant hindrance to the realization of individual and group rights. Education is crucial for personal development, empowerment, and the ability to engage actively in society. Barriers to education, such as discrimination or inadequate resources, can limit opportunities for individuals and groups.

(v) Arbitrary Governance and Corruption:
Corrupt practices and arbitrary governance can undermine the rule of law and erode individuals’ and groups’ trust in institutions. Corruption may lead to the misallocation of resources, denial of services, and unequal application of the law. This can hinder the effective exercise of rights and contribute to a sense of injustice within society.
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(3a) Tolerance refers to the ability and willingness to accept and respect differences in opinions, beliefs, cultures, and backgrounds within a diverse society.

(3b)
(i)Educational Programs: Implementing educational initiatives that foster understanding and appreciation of diverse cultures.
(ii) Interfaith Dialogues: Encouraging conversations and collaborations among people of different religious backgrounds.
(iii) Media Engagement: Promoting positive portrayals of diverse ethnic groups in media to counter stereotypes and biases.
(iv) Community Events: Organizing events that celebrate cultural diversity, fostering unity and shared experiences.
(v)Government Policies: Implementing inclusive policies that recognize and protect the rights of all ethnic groups.
(vi)Conflict Resolution: Developing mechanisms for peacefully addressing inter-ethnic conflicts and promoting dialogue.
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(4a)
(i) National Youth Service Corps (NYSC): The NYSC is a government program that aims to foster unity and develop the skills of Nigerian youths through a one-year mandatory service period.

(ii) Federal Ministry of Youth and Sports Development: This ministry is responsible for formulating and implementing policies, programs, and initiatives that promote the empowerment and development of Nigerian youths.

(iii) National Directorate of Employment (NDE): The NDE is an agency that focuses on job creation, skill acquisition, and entrepreneurship development for Nigerian youths.

(4b)
(i) Education and Skill Development: Provide access to quality education and vocational training programs to enhance their knowledge and skills.

(ii) Entrepreneurship Support: Offer funding, mentorship, and resources to encourage young people to start their own businesses and become self-reliant.

(iii) Employment Opportunities: Create job opportunities through public and private sector collaboration, ensuring fair employment practices and equal opportunities for all.

(iv) Civic Engagement: Encourage young people to actively participate in community development, governance, and decision-making processes.

(v) Access to Healthcare: Ensure access to affordable healthcare services, including reproductive health education and services, to promote the well-being of Nigerian youths.

(vi) Mentoring and Leadership Development: Establish mentorship programs and leadership training initiatives to guide and inspire young people to become future leaders.
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(5)
(i)Violence and intimidation: Cultism in Nigeria often involves gangs engaged in violent activities such as killings, rape, robberies, and kidnappings. These acts instill fear in communities and promote a sense of insecurity, as individuals are afraid of falling victim to such violence.

(ii)Social disruption: Cult groups disrupt social harmony by creating divisions and instigating conflicts between different communities, religious groups, or ethnicities. This social unrest adds to the overall sense of insecurity and hampers peaceful coexistence.

(iii)Recruitment of young people: Cultism preys on vulnerable young individuals, particularly students in schools and universities. The recruitment of young people into cult groups not only puts their lives at risk but also fuels the cycle of violence, as these individuals are often forced to engage in criminal activities, further contributing to insecurity.

(iv)Influence on politics and governance: Cultism has infiltrated politics and governance in Nigeria, with cult members seeking positions of power and using their influence to perpetuate violence. This interference undermines the foundations of democracy, erodes public trust in governance, and fosters an environment of insecurity and instability.

(v) Economic ramifications: Cultism has a negative impact on Nigeria’s economy. The prevalence of violence and crime associated with cultism disrupts businesses, discourages investments, and hinders socio-economic development. This stunts growth opportunities and exacerbates insecurity, as individuals struggle to make a living and find economic stability.
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(6)
(i) Access to Healthcare: Ensuring that PLWHA have access to appropriate healthcare services is vital. This includes regular medical check-ups, access to antiretroviral therapy (ART), and specialized care for potential complications or opportunistic infections.

(ii) Psychosocial Support: PLWHA often face significant psychological and emotional challenges due to the stigma associated with HIV/AIDS. Providing psychosocial support through counseling, support groups, and peer networks can help address these issues, reduce isolation, and promote overall mental well-being.

(iii) Education and Awareness: Raising awareness about HIV/AIDS is crucial in combating misconceptions, reducing stigma, and preventing further transmission. Educating the public about prevention strategies, safe sex practices, and ways to support PLWHA can help decrease discrimination and promote a more inclusive society.

(iv) Economic Empowerment: Many PLWHA face economic hardships due to the burden of healthcare costs and potential discrimination in the workplace. Supporting income-generating activities, vocational training, and advocating for workplace equality can empower PLWHA economically and improve their overall livelihoods.

(v) Policy and Legal Support: Advocating for policies and laws that protect the rights of PLWHA is essential. This includes ensuring anti-discrimination measures, legal frameworks for confidentiality, and access to services. Engaging with policymakers and organizations to promote these protections can make a significant difference in the lives of PLWHA.
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(7)
(i)Logistics: One of the primary challenges for INEC is the logistical aspect of conducting elections. Nigeria is a vast country with a large population, and ensuring the smooth transportation of election materials, deployment of personnel, and adequate infrastructure in remote areas can be immensely challenging. Poor road networks, inadequate storage facilities, and transportation delays can hamper the timely delivery of materials, leading to disruptions in the electoral process.

(ii)Voter Education: Another challenge is the need for extensive voter education. Nigeria has a diverse population with varying levels of literacy and political awareness. Many voters, particularly in rural areas, may lack the necessary knowledge to navigate the electoral process. INEC must invest in comprehensive voter education campaigns to inform citizens about their rights and responsibilities, the voting process, and the importance of elections to promote broader participation and prevent voter apathy.

(iii)Security Concerns: Ensuring a secure environment for elections is crucial. Nigeria has faced security challenges in several regions, including insurgency and politically motivated violence. It is essential for INEC to collaborate with security agencies to develop and implement effective security strategies that safeguard the integrity of the electoral process, protect voters, and secure election materials, particularly in areas prone to conflict or unrest.

(iv)Electoral Malpractice: INEC also faces the daunting task of combating electoral malpractice, including vote buying, ballot box snatching, voter intimidation, and manipulation of results. These malpractices undermine the credibility of the electoral process and erode public trust. INEC must strengthen its enforcement mechanisms, enhance transparency, and work closely with relevant stakeholders such as political parties, civil society organizations, and law enforcement agencies to detect and address instances of electoral fraud.

(v)Technology and Infrastructure: Harnessing technology for efficient voter registration, verification, and vote counting is crucial for INEC. However, the lack of adequate technological infrastructure poses a challenge. Power outages, poor internet connectivity, and limited access to technology in certain areas can hinder the effective implementation of technology-driven electoral processes. INEC needs to bridge the digital divide, invest in robust technological infrastructure, and ensure sufficient training for its staff to maximize the benefits of technology in elections.
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(8)
(i)Community Mobilization: Civil society organizations (CSOs) engage communities directly, organizing them around specific issues, empowering individuals to participate actively in decision-making processes and taking collective actions towards change.

(ii)Legal Advocacy: Through legal advocacy, CSOs use the legal system to challenge injustices, advocate for policy changes, or defend the rights of marginalized groups, often through litigation, legal advice, or support.

(iii)Social Media and Communication: Civil society organizations (CSOs) leverage social media platforms, traditional media, and communication channels to disseminate information, raise awareness, mobilize support, and influence public opinion on critical social issues.

(iv)Capacity Building and Training: By offering skill-building workshops, training sessions, and educational programs, CSOs empower individuals and communities with the knowledge and tools needed to address societal challenges and advocate for change effectively.

(v)Policy Research and Analysis: Civil society organizations (CSOs) conduct in-depth research, policy analysis, and data collection to produce evidence-based reports and recommendations. These findings are used to influence policymakers, advocating for policies that address societal issues.
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(9)
(i) Lack of representation: When citizens do not participate in political affairs, their voices and concerns are not adequately represented in policy-making and decision-making processes. This can lead to policies that do not align with the needs and interests of the general population.

(ii) Decreased accountability: Non-involvement of citizens can result in less scrutiny and oversight of elected officials and government bodies. This can create an environment of reduced accountability, where politicians may feel less pressured to act ethically or in the best interest of the people they represent.

(iii) Polarization and extremism: Non-involvement can provide an opportunity for extremist groups to gain more influence and power. When a significant portion of the population is disengaged from political affairs, it creates a void that can be filled by radical ideologies. This polarization can lead to social unrest and divisions within society.

(iv) Decline in democratic values: Citizen engagement is a fundamental pillar of democracy. When citizens are not actively participating in the political process, it can erode democratic values such as individual freedoms, equality, and justice. This decline may result in weakening democratic institutions and the consolidation of power in the hands of a few.

(v) Ineffectiveness of governance: In a democratic system, citizen participation is essential for effective governance. When citizens do not engage in political affairs, it can result in inefficient decision-making, as policies and reforms may not be adequately informed by public opinion and societal needs. This can lead to a lack of effectiveness and responsiveness in the government’s ability to address pressing issues.
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Waec GCE 2023 Civic Education (ESSAY & OBJ) Questions And Answers

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