WAEC GCE 2023 GEOGRAPHY (PRACTICAL) ANSWERS(6th December)

WAEC GCE 2023 GEOGRAPHY (PRACTICAL) ANSWERS – EXAMKING.NET
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GEOGRAPHY-PRACTICAL-ANSWERS
(3a)
(i) Hydraulic action
(ii) Abrasion
(iii) Corrosion

(3b)
(PICK ANY FOUR)
(i) Wide and flat valley: As the river approaches its mouth, the valley widens and flattens, creating a broad floodplain.
(ii) Meanders: The river forms large bends called meanders as it flows through the flat valley. This is due to the lower gradient and slower flow of water.
(iii) Oxbow lakes: Over time, meanders can erode through adjacent land, cutting off a loop of the river and forming an oxbow lake.
(iv) Delta: In the lower course, where the river meets a body of water, such as a lake or the ocean, it may form a delta. A delta is a triangular-shaped deposit of sediment that builds up over time.
(v) Slower flow: The gradient of the river decreases in the lower course, resulting in a slower flow of water.
(vi) Increased deposition: Due to the reduced flow velocity, the river loses its ability to carry sediment, leading to increased deposition of sediment on the floodplain and in the delta.

(3c)
(PICK ANY TWO)
(i) Coriolis effect: The rotation of the Earth causes moving air and water to be deflected to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere. This effect influences global wind patterns and ocean currents.
(ii) Day and night cycle: The rotation of the Earth on its axis causes the alternation between day and night. This cycle of sunlight and darkness affects the temperature and biological activities on Earth.
(iii) Formation of tides: The gravitational pull of the moon and the rotation of the Earth cause the formation of ocean tides. As the Earth rotates, the gravitational forces change, resulting in the rise and fall of sea levels.
(iv) Geostrophic wind flow: Due to the rotation of the Earth, the balance between the pressure gradient force and the Coriolis effect results in the formation of geostrophic winds, which are large-scale horizontal winds found in the upper atmosphere.
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(5a)
Mass wasting refers to the downslope movement of rock, soil, and debris under the influence of gravity.

(5b)
(i)Slope Angle: Steeper slopes are more prone to mass wasting.
(ii)Material Composition: Loose, unconsolidated materials are more susceptible.
(iii)Water Content: Saturation of soil with water increases its weight and reduces cohesion.
(iv)Vegetation Cover: Lack of vegetation exposes soil to erosion and destabilizes slopes.

(5c)
(i) Property Damage; Mass wasting can lead to destruction of homes, infrastructure, and cultivated land.
(ii)Loss of Life: In severe cases, mass wasting events can result in fatalities, especially in densely populated areas.
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7a)
(PICK ANY THREE)
(i) Sahara Desert in North Africa
(ii) Arabian Desert in the Arabian Peninsula
(iii) Mojave Desert in the southwestern United States
(iv) Atacama Desert in Chile
(v) Gobi Desert in Mongolia and China

(7b)
(PICK ANY FIVE)
(i) High temperatures: Hot deserts are characterized by extremely high temperatures, often reaching above 100 degrees Fahrenheit (38 degrees Celsius) during the day.
(ii) Low humidity: Deserts have very low levels of humidity, which means that the air is dry.
(iii) Scarce rainfall: Hot deserts receive very little rainfall, often less than 10 inches per year. This lack of rain contributes to the arid conditions.
(iv) Wide temperature fluctuations: Deserts experience significant temperature variations between day and night. While the days are scorching hot, the nights can be freezing cold.
(v) Strong winds: Deserts are known for their strong winds that can cause sandstorms and erosion. These winds can further contribute to the dryness and harshness of the climate.

(7c)
(PICK ANY THREE)
(i) Deep root systems: Desert plants often have extensive root systems that reach deep into the ground to access water sources deep below the surface.
(ii) Succulent leaves and stems: Some desert plants store water in their leaves or stems, which helps them survive during extended periods of drought.
(iii) Protective structures: Many desert plants have adaptations such as thorns, spines, or tough, waxy outer coverings to protect themselves from predators and reduce water loss through evaporation.
(iv) Reduced leaf surface area: Desert plants often have small, needle-like leaves or no leaves at all. This helps to minimize water loss through transpiration.
(v) CAM photosynthesis: Some desert plants use Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) photosynthesis, which allows them to take in carbon dioxide at night and store it for use during the day. This reduces water loss by limiting their need to open their stomata in the heat of the day.
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(8a)
(PICK ANY FIVE)
(i) Groundwater
(ii) Surface water
(iii) Rainwater
(iv) Snowmelt
(v) Glaciers
(vi) Sea and ocean water

(8b)
(PICK ANY FIVE)
(i) Pollution: Industrial and agricultural activities release pollutants into water bodies, making the water unsafe for human consumption or other uses.
(ii) Deforestation: Clearing forests can lead to soil erosion, which affects the quality and availability of water by increasing sedimentation in rivers and lakes.
(iii) Overuse and depletion of groundwater: Excessive pumping of groundwater for agriculture, industry, and domestic use can deplete underground water sources, leading to a decrease in availability for future use.
(iv) Damming rivers: Construction of dams disrupts the natural flow of rivers, affecting ecosystems, and altering water availability downstream.
(v) Climate change: Changes in weather patterns and the increasing frequency of droughts and floods can negatively impact water availability and quality.
(vi) Inefficient water management: Poor water management practices, including inefficient irrigation methods and inadequate maintenance of water infrastructure, can result in wasted water and limited access to clean water for communities.
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