(i)Each Igbo village was seen as a political unit inhabited by related families who were bounded by common beliefs and origin. Each family head in the village held the ‘Ofo‘ title and altogether formed the council of elders.
(iii)Among the council of elders, one was recognized as the most senior to others. He was the ‘Okpara‘. He could call for and adjourn a meeting, and could also give judgements as well.
(iii)the age-grade. The age-grade consisted of youngsters that belong to the same age-group. The senior age-group maintained peace and order in the village and also provided security to ward off external attacks, while the junior age-group concentrated on the sanitation of the community and other necessary duties.
(iv)the ‘Ozo‘ title holders. This expensive title was conferred on wealthy and influential men in the community who after getting the title become recognized and could then preside over meetings with the village elders.
(v)they were believed to be the mouthpiece of the gods e.g. Aro’s long juju. Even the council of elders consulted the priests on matters that were beyond their powers i.e. matters that needed spiritual intervention.
(i)Constant war and conflict; Before the entry of the British into the country, the citizens enjoyed what can be described as a prevailing sense of harmony. However, when the country was overrun in the name of imperialism, it marked the beginning of conflict and war. These conflicts were largely fueled by the colonizers in a well-thought divide and rule strategy. The colonial rule, therefore, disrupted the country’s peace and economic for quite some time.
(ii)Economic dependence and resource exploitation; While colonialism brought infrastructural and technological development to Nigeria, it was also a form of extreme exploitation. The basic idea behind colonization had aspects of economic dependency baked right into it. The British took the country’s resources, land and mineral included, leaving the natives dependent on them to generate funds.
(iii)Loss of culture and identity; When the colonialists took over the country’s rule during the colonial era, the natives suffered a massive culture and identity loss. The British brought and imposed their culture, language, behaviour, beliefs, and other ways of life on the Nigerians. This then led to the natives abandoning some of their customs and culture in favour of those brought by the colonizers.
(iv)Loss of land; One of the biggest reasons for British colonialism in Nigeria was the abundant resources. The British needed the land to create massive plantations for their economic gain. When they got into the country, the colonialists forcefully grabbed land from the natives. This left most natives in colonial Nigeria with little or no land both at individual and community levels.
(v)Slave trade and humiliation; the introduction of colonialism into Nigeria, the twisted idea of the slave trade followed suit. At the time, the colonial masters needed slaves to work in their home countries or in the colonies. Additionally, imperialism reduced the status and prestige accorded to Nigerian leaders.
(vi)Introduction of money currencies: In pre-colonial Nigeria, the prevalent form of business was barter trade. This involved the exchange of goods with other goods, a system ridden with numerous challenges. The colonialists then introduced money currencies, making it easier to trade and do business. In 1912, the British introduced the first silver coins in the country. Around the same time, the West African Currency Board was created. Besides the money currency, the British also introduced the banking system in Nigeria, further simplifying trade in the country.
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