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Friday 2nd June, 2023

Geography 3 (Practical and Physical Geography) 3:00pm – 4:50pm




(i) Winter.
(ii) Spring.
(iii) Autumn.
(iv) Summer.

(i) Local time varies from one longitude to another at the rate of 4 minutes per degree of longitude.
(ii) Local time varies from place to place within a time zone.

(i) Standard time varies from one time zone to another one hourly basis of 15° of longitude to 1 hour.
(ii) It maintains the central time for time zone in which they are.


(CHECK THE DIAGRAM ABOVE AND WRITE THIS UNDER) Solar Eclipse: This occurs when the moon comes in between the sun and the earth, in a perfect straight line. The moon is capable of blocking the light from the sun. The moon then casts its shadow of darkness on the earth.

(i) Solution: This is the process by which soluble minerals are dissolved in the water and carried along by the river. The dissolved minerals include calcium, magnesium, and sodium.

(ii) Suspension: This is the process by which small particles such as sand, silt, and clay are carried along by the river. These particles are suspended in the water and can be seen as a cloud of sediment.

(iii) Bedload: This is the process by which larger particles such as pebbles, cobbles, and boulders are carried along the riverbed by rolling, bouncing, or sliding. Bedload is the slowest process of river transportation, as it requires more energy to move larger particles.

(i) Wider channel: The channel of the river is wider than in the upper course, and the river is deeper and has a higher volume of water.

(ii) Meanders: The river flows in a winding path, creating meanders. The river also has a lower gradient, which means the water flows more slowly.

(iii) Floodplains: The river has a wider floodplain, which is the flat area of land surrounding the river. The floodplain is often fertile and used for agriculture.

(iv) Tributaries: The river is fed by many tributaries, which are smaller streams that flow into the main river. This increases the volume of water in the river.


(CHECK THE DIAGRAM ABOVE AND WRITE THIS BELOW) Interlocking Spur: This refers to the portion of the valley wall which projects from both sides of the concave bends of the river as it meanders. They usually obscure the view of the river valley.

(i) Rugged topography
(ii) Absence of surface drainage
(iii) Depression of varying sizes an d depths

(i) Cave systems
(ii) Underground Lakes and Springs
(iii) Sinkholes
(iv) Stalactites and stalagmites

(i) Rich in Mineral Resources: Limestone regions are often abundant in mineral resources. Limestone itself is a valuable rock used in construction, agriculture, and industry. Limestone regions may contain deposits of other minerals such as coal, iron, zinc, and phosphates, which contribute to economic development.

(ii) Fertile Soil: Limestone weathering over time produces fertile soil with high calcium carbonate content. This type of soil is ideal for agriculture, as it provides essential nutrients and helps maintain soil pH levels. Limestone regions often support productive farmland and vibrant ecosystems.

(iii) Water Storage and Supply: Limestone is highly permeable, allowing water to pass through and form underground aquifers. These aquifers act as natural reservoirs, storing water and ensuring a reliable water supply in limestone regions. The porous nature of limestone also facilitates groundwater recharge and reduces surface water runoff, contributing to sustainable water management.

(iv) Scientific exploration: Limestone regions are known for their unique karst landscapes, characterized by sinkholes, underground rivers, and caves. These features provide opportunities for scientific exploration and serves as natural habitats for specialized flora and fauna.

Climate refers to the long-term average weather conditions of a particular region or area. It is determined by various factors such as temperature, precipitation, humidity, wind patterns, and atmospheric pressure, which persist over a significant period, typically for several decades or more.

(i) Solar radiation
(ii) Atmospheric composition
(iii) Ocean currents
(iv) Land and water distribution
(v) Altitude and topography

(i) High Temperature: Equatorial regions experience consistently high temperatures throughout the year. Average temperatures range between 25 to 30 degrees Celsius (77 to 86 degrees Fahrenheit). There is minimal seasonal variation in temperature, and it remains relatively constant year-round.

(ii) High Precipitation: Equatorial regions receive abundant rainfall, resulting in a high level of precipitation. Rainfall is evenly distributed throughout the year, with no distinct dry season.

(iii) High Humidity: Equatorial climates are characterized by high humidity levels. The combination of high temperatures and abundant rainfall leads to a significant amount of moisture in the air. Relative humidity often exceeds 80%, creating a warm and moist environment.

(iv) Dense Vegetation: The equatorial climate fosters the growth of lush and diverse vegetation, including tropical rainforests. The consistent warmth, ample rainfall, and high humidity provide ideal conditions for the growth of a wide variety of plant species. The dense vegetation contributes to the rich biodiversity found in equatorial regions.

weathering: Weathering is the disintegration or decomposition of rocks in situ by physical, chemical or biological processes

Frost action; weathering is an umbrella term used to describe mechanical weathering processes that break down rock from freezing and thawing action. It includes frost wedging, frost shattering, and cryofracturing, all terms that incorporate this process.

Exfoliation; If a large intrusion is brought to the surface through tectonic uplift and the erosion of overlying rocks, the confining pressure above the intrusion has been released, but the pressure underneath is still being exerted, forcing the rock to expand.

Solar energy refers to the radiant energy emitted by the Sun, which can be harnesses and converted into useful forms of energy such as heat and electricity using photovoltaic cells or solar thermal collectors.

(i) Renewable and Sustainable: Solar energy is a clean and abundant source of energy that does not deplete natural resources and does not emit harmful pollutants into the environment. This makes it a sustainable and environmentally friendly energy source.

(ii) Cost-effective: Once installed, solar energy systems require very little maintenance or operating costs. As the cost of solar technology continues to decrease, it has become increasingly affordable for individuals and businesses to invest in solar energy systems.

(iii) Energy Independence: Solar energy provides a level of energy independence that is not possible with traditional fossil fuel-based energy sources. It allows individuals and communities to generate their own power and reduces their dependence on centralized power grids.

(i) Intermittent Energy Source: Solar energy is an intermittent energy source, meaning it is only available during daylight hours and may vary depending on weather conditions. Energy storage systems such as batteries or pumped hydro storage can be used to overcome this challenge and provide a continuous flow of energy.

(ii) High Initial Costs: Although solar energy is cost-effective in the long run, the initial investment required to install solar panels and other equipment can be high, which may deter some individuals or businesses from investing in solar energy systems.

(iii) Land Use and Environmental Impact: Solar energy systems require a significant amount of land to generate large amounts of electricity, which can potentially impact natural habitats and wildlife. Additionally, the production and disposal of solar panels and other equipment can have environmental impacts if not properly managed.


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