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— Formed by wave erosion.
— Presence of a headland
— Wave erosion attacks headland at both sides
— Two waves formed in opposite sides of the headland
— Further erosion of caves produces an arch when waves joined up
— Roof of arch collapse
— The seaward portion of the headland remains as a pillar known as a stack

— Feature of the coast.
— Seaward part of the headland left standing
—Varies in size depending on the resistance of the rock.
—Further erosion of stack produces stump.
— Examples are the Needles, Oldman of Hoy.

(i)they provided safe places for fishing.
(ii)they provide encouraged their selection as ports.


Weathering is breaking down rocks, soil, and minerals as well as wood and artificial materials by contacting the atmosphere, water, and biological organisms of the Earth.

Carbonation is the process of rock minerals reacting with carbonic acid. Carbonic acid is formed when water combines with carbon dioxide. Carbonic acid dissolves or breaks down minerals in the rock.

Hydrolysis is a form of chemical weathering in which only part of a mineral is taken into solution.

Temperature changes can also contribute to mechanical weathering in a process called thermal stress. Changes in temperature cause rock to expand (with heat) and contract (with cold). As this happens over and over again, the structure of the rock weakens. Over time, it crumbles. In other words Weathering breaks down the Earth’s surface into smaller pieces. Those pieces are moved in a process called erosion, and deposited somewhere else.Weathering can be caused by wind ,water ,ice ,plants, gravity and changes in temperature.



environmental resource is any material, service, or information from the environment that is valuable to society. … Clean land, air, and water are environmental resources, as are the abilities of land, air, and water to absorb society’s waste products.

(i)Atmospheric resources.
(ii)Water resources.
(iii)Vegetation resources.

(i) By planting trees, you are helping to combat global warming because trees absorb carbon dioxide. You are also helping to reduce run off water from the hills.

(ii)By printing out every email and wasting paper, you are unwittingly spinning the wheel of illegal forest destruction. Reduce your paper use when you can. This way, you will decrease your contribution to the loss of forests.

(iii)To produce the same amount of protein from animal agriculture requires much larger areas of land compared to plant-based farming help in controlling it.

(iv)Eco-forestry is a restorative method of forest management, which is not based on economic productivity. In this practice, certain trees are selectively harvested while causing minimal damage to the rest of the forest.

(v)By educating people about the effects of their actions, such as palm oil consumption, the amount of deforestation can be reduced.




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