(PICK ANY THREE)
(i) 110-meter hurdles (men)
(ii) 100-meter hurdles (women)
(iii) 400-meter hurdles (men and women)
(iv) 4×100-meterrelay hurdles (men and women)
(v) 3000-meter steeplechase (men and women)
(vi) Decathlon/Heptathlon (includes hurdle events)
(PICK ANY FOUR)
(i) Athletes must clear each hurdle by jumping over it and not knocking it down.
(ii) If an athlete knocks down a hurdle, they may be disqualified or penalized with added time.
(iii) Athletes must stay within their assigned lanes for the entire race.
(iv) False starts can result in disqualification.
(v) Hurdles must be set at the correct height and spacing for each event.
(vi) The finish line is crossed when the athlete’s torso reaches the vertical plane of the finish line.
(PICK ANY FIVE)
(iv) Strength and power
(vi) Mental focus and determination
(vii) Strategy and race tactics
(i) Starting blocks
(ii) Timing systems
(iii) Track spikes
(iv) Track hurdles
(iii) Field judges
(iv) Finish line judge
(i) Lead arm – the arm that is closest to the hurdle when an athlete is jumping over it. The lead arm should be extended forward to help with balance and clearance of the hurdle.
(ii) Trail leg – the leg that is trailing behind the lead leg during the hurdle jump. The trail leg should be raised high and swung forward to clear the hurdle efficiently, while the lead leg drives forward to push off.
(i) 4×100 meters Relay
(ii) 4×400 meters Relay
(iii) Swimming Relay Events
(iv) Sprint medley relay
(i) Upward Handoff (or Push Pass)
(ii) Downward Handoff (or Drop Pass)
(i) Scratch line: In sports like track and field, the scratch line is the starting line where athletes begin their race or event. It’s the line that marks the point from which they can start running or competing.
(ii) Anchor: In sports such as relay races, the anchor is the final runner or participant in a relay team. They are responsible for running the last leg of the race and crossing the finish line for their team.
(iii) False start: A false start occurs when an athlete begins their movement before the official start signal is given. It’s considered a violation of the rules and can result in penalties or disqualification, depending on the sport.
(i) Each team consists of four members, and each member must pass a baton to the next runner.
(ii) The baton must be passed within a designated exchange zone, usually marked by colored lines on the track.
(iii) Runners must stay in their designated lanes until the baton is passed to them.
(iv) If a baton is dropped or not properly exchanged within the exchange zone, the team may be disqualified.
(v) The first runner starts from a set position, typically using starting blocks, and the race begins with a starting signal.
(i) It has smooth, tapered ends to facilitate a quick and smooth transition from one runner to the next
(ii) It has a textured or contoured surface to provide a secure and comfortable grip for the athletes
(iii) It is made of lightweight materials such as aluminum or plastic to ensure ease of handling and reduce the risk of injury during handoffs.
(iv) It has bright colors or reflective elements to enhance visibility
(i) Footwork and Court Movement
(iii) Backhand Stroke
(iv) Forehand Stroke
(v) Strategy and Shot Selection
(i) Foot fault
(ii) Double fault
(i) Tennis racket
(ii) Tennis balls
(iii) Net and post
(iv) Tennis shoes
(v) Tennis court
(i) Line judges
(ii) Chair umpire
(i) Court Surface: Lawn tennis is typically played on various court surfaces, such as grass, clay, or hard court. Each surface affects the speed and bounce of the ball, adding an extra element of strategy to the game.
(ii) Scoring System: Lawn tennis uses a unique scoring system with terms like “love,” “15,” “30,” and “40.” Players must win points to progress through the game, with the ultimate goal of winning games, sets, and matches.
Air resistance and wind
(i) Double hit
(ii) Foot fault
(i) Service Let
(ii) Shuttlecock Hits the Net
(iii) Player Obstruction
(iv) Disturbance from Outside the Court
(v) Shuttlecock Damage
(i) Alley: In badminton, the alley refers to the area on the sides of the court that is used for doubles play. It is the additional space beyond the singles sidelines. The alley is in play during doubles matches, and shots that land inside the alley are considered in bounds.
(ii) Smash: The smash is a powerful attacking shot in badminton. It is a forceful overhead shot where the player hits the shuttlecock downward with great speed and steep angle, aiming to make it difficult for the opponent to return. The smash is often used to score points or put pressure on the opponent.
(iii) Deuce: Deuce is a term used when the score is tied at 40-40 (or 40-all) in a game. In this situation, players must win two consecutive points to win the game instead of just one. It adds excitement and tension to the game as players battle to gain the advantage and win the game.
(i) Base line
(ii) Singles sideline
(iii) Doubles sidelines